In regards to professional writing, the 'you attitude' means looking at a topic from the reader's point of view (you) instead of our own (me).
It is known that attitude plays an important role in every aspect of people’s lives. Our attitude is how we see this world, how we behave towards the others and so on. You even can’t imagine how much can simply be changed due to changing attitude to life. A speech on attitude is a conversational form of communication during which a speaker expresses his or her thoughts or emotions concerning the role of an attitude in people’s lives. So a speech on attitude should be lively, emotional, and influential for the listeners. The speaker may use speech sounds as well as gestures to convey the necessary information.
This guide is helpful to prepare a speech on attitude and its forms. Take into consideration all the tips mentioned below for your own speech to say, “I manage to make a speech that is listened to by everyone in the audience”.
If you go through some psychology notes on attitude, you’ll see that attitude can be defined as:
The ABC model of attitude is comprised of 3 components:
It is important to know a person’s attitude to predict his/her behavior. Let’s examine your attitude toward different objects and situations:
All these questions can be asked during your speech on attitude as a way of the active interaction with your listeners. Ask about their opinions, judgments, emotions, and perceptions of some issues. Follow their facial movements to notice their emotions and say, “Now, you feel disgusted” or “You’re angry now”. You will impress your audience with this way of speech delivering. The direct communication always wins in public speaking. Let’s see what more can help you to make your speech memorable.
When we watch famous speakers delivering their speeches on television or in public, they seem so confident that you may wonder: how these great speakers achieve it or they are just born as great speakers. Don’t worry! They all pass through the following steps:
“Good afternoon dear …,
Today I would like to talk about the thing which is an important element not only to your student life but life in general. The thing is an attitude. The modern life is a track. The reality is such that people have to keep pace with it, or someone else can get the start of them. On this path, one will face an endless number of sudden hardships, rises, and falls. For that reason, it is important to realize the true value of the ability to monitor one’s attitude and its influence on the effectiveness of one’s performance. The experienced people stick to the most important rule in their lives which says that attitude is everything due to several reasons.
First of all, attitude defines the ultimate outcome. The truth is that anyone out of the list of the most successful people of the world will tell you that their success would not have existed without an appropriate attitude. It does not matter in which sphere a person is involved in, it is an attitude that guarantees the winning line. Therefore, a correct and a desired attitude towards the work one performs is key towards success.
The second reason which proves the importance of the attitude is that it also forms one’s behavior. The human brain is so constructed that the recorded information which is deeply rooted in one’s memory is able to affect the rest of the life of a person, his or her thoughts, and even actions. The point is that one should develop a correct and appropriate attitude to the surrounding world, people, and events. The attitude towards all these things will define the attitude towards a person. The idea of the attitude as a manifestation of the behavior resolves itself to the fact that a smart and successful person tries to educate a kind of perception, an attitude which will also formulate the needed behavior in order to gain that success.
The last thing, however, not least is the attitude as a basis for one’s way of life. Sometimes, one can hear that the attitude is an aspect which differentiates a good and a bad life. Besides, if something happens, and it cannot be changed by any means, there are two options: one can either complain about everything or wisely deal with it.
A correct attitude is a thing which comes through motivation, self-exercising, a will to develop, and sincere enthusiasm. In such a way, a positive attitude enables one to cope with the tasks of diverse difficulty level within the everyday routine. An optimistic attitude divides a person from the negative thoughts which may spoil all the previous efforts and achievements. One should consider a correct attitude as a skeleton for the success which is fed on one’s positive state of mind.”
In summary, the best way to give a good speech is to adopt a positive attitude to public speaking. Instead of saying, “I can’t work on my speech”, say, “I can write my speech effectively for my performance on the stage” and follow all the tips highlighted in this guide. Develop a message that you believe in concerning attitude so that the audience will connect to it as well. Get inspired to make a speech memorable for your listeners.
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Audience Attitudes Toward Writer and Subject. As you think about your document's content and organization, consider your audience's attitudes toward both you.
The measurement of attitude by using attitude scales has in the past two or three years attracted wide-spread interest. Investigators in many fields are not only endeavoring to measure attitudes with ready-made scales but are also constructing various scales of their own. The successful construction of an attitude scale, however, requires more than knowing merely the mechanical steps of the procedure. In fact, the crucial task which first confronts one in constructing an attitude scale for a given issue is the collection of attitude statements on that issue. This is not a technical part of the construction method, but the success or failure of the scale depends much upon how well the initial list of statements is compiled and edited.
The purpose of this paper is to suggest a number of practical rules for writing attitude statements. These suggestions naturally are of special interest to those who construct attitude scales.
Aside from the fact that care must be taken to cover adequately the entire range of attitudes so as to prevent a break in any part of the scale 'gird to include a variety of arguments so as to add reliability to the scale, the statements must be edited with regard to sentence construction and choice of words. The criterion of ambiguity and that of irrelevance (1, p. 44)valuable as they are In the selection of statements for the final scale, should not be depended upon too much in compiling the initial list of statements. Much time can be saved and statistical labor avoided if the experimental list does not. contain too much worthless material.
The criteria suggested below are by no means to be taken as final but have been compiled from work done on statements for a series of attitude scales. They may be considered as an elaboration of the informal criteria given in Thurstone and Chave's monograph. Whenever possible, actual sorting ' data are presented in order to illustrate the ambiguous effect of violating the rule under discussion. Since normally a good attitude statements is distributed in no more than three or four consecutive piles, the significance of these sorting data is apparent.
1. An attitude statement must be debatable. It must represent only an opinion which has no general acceptance. Thus, a universal truth or a statement of fact should never be used in an attitude scale. To illustrate:
Bad: Unions are organized to protect labor.
Better: Unions are desirable for protecting labor.
The first statement is one with which everyone would agree. Its endorsement indicates not any kind of an attitude but the acknowledgment of a fact. If it were included in an attitude scale, it would be endorsed by people who are opposed to unions as well as by those who are friendly to them. For a similar reason:
Bad: It is hard on the children to have the mother working.
Better: Women with children should not work.
2. All statements on a given issue should belong, as nearly as can be judged, to the same attitude variable. That is, they must be not only relevant to the issue but belong to the linear continuum that is being measured. As violations of this rule constitute the most common type of faulty statements, it is well that every attitude statement be considered in terms of this criterion. Examples:
Statement: In an ideal society there would be no law. (From a scale on attitude toward law, where the variable being measured is from complete respect to utter disrespect for law.)
Statement: We are governed by laws, not by men. From the same scale as above.)
Statement: Total abstinence from liquor can be accomplished only by education. (From a scale on attitude toward prohibition, where the variable being measured is from complete approval of, to violent opposition to, prohibition.)
The wide scatter in each case shows that the statement was ambiguous with reference to the principal issue.
3. An attitude statement must not be susceptible to more than one interpretation. It must contain no word or phrase which can be construed to mean different things by different individuals. A few illustrations follow:
Statement: Birth control legislation is a disgrace to our civilization.
The ambiguity of this statement is apparently caused by the fact that the statement can be endorsed by people who oppose as well as by those who endorse birth control, although with different interpretations.
Statement: Anyone who makes others suffer should suffer in return. (From a scale on attitude toward the treatment of criminals.)
The ambiguity here seems to lie in the possibility that the term "anyone" may refer to criminals or to society.
Statement: There can be no compromise with the evolutionists. Sorting data:
It is interesting to observe the consistency of the judgments by noting the results on a counter statement as shown below:
Statement: There can be no compromise with the enemies of evolution.
To endorse one of these statements does not clearly show to which end of the scale the subject belongs because the statements can be interpreted in different ways.
4. Avoid "double-barreled" statements. While it is sometimes necessary, in order to express neutrality or a mild attitude, to balance one idea with an opposite idea, experience has shown that this type of statement usually causes either high ambiguity or a break at the neutral pile, i.e., resulting in a bimodal distribution. To illustrate:
Statement: Athletic conditions are bad, but officials are trying to improve them.
Statement: Birth control would be all right if we could prevent people from taking immoral advantage of it.
These distributions show that the subjects had difficulty in deciding whether the real attitude is favorable or unfavorable to the issues involved.
5. An attitude statement should be short. It should rarely exceed fifteen words in length. Most statements should be much shorter. A long statement can usually be reduced to a shorter one without altering its essential point. For example: Instead of saying,
The Bible represents the sacred word of God and should be respected by everyone as such" the statement can be reduced to merely, "The Bible is the sacred word of God."
In writing attitude statements, it is well to try to shorten the length of each sentence written. In doing so, one usually also avoids the violation of many of the other rules here mentioned.
6. Each attitude statement should be complete in denoting a definite attitude toward a specific issue. Do not assume that the issue in question can be understood without specific reference to it. Thus, do not use "laws" to mean prohibition laws, or "it," "they," etc., unless the reference is perfectly clear within the statement in which they are used.
7. Each attitude statement should contain only one complete thought. Too many ideas in one statement cause confusion in interpreting the attitude and thus increase the chance of high ambiguity. The following ex-ample illustrates the effect of violating this rule:
Statement: Prohibition laws and enforcement are merely political games and there is no moral issue in keeping or breaking them.
Another example of violation of this rule is the following:
"The church was established to serve a useful purpose but it has outlived its time; therefore, it is doing more harm than good."
The remedy for this type of statement is to break it up into two or more shorter statements, thus:
a. The church serves a useful purpose.
b. The church has outlived its usefulness.
c. The church does more harm than good.
8. Avoid grouping two or more complete sentences as one attitude statement. Do not transplant quotations by the paragraph en bloc, but rewrite
( 371) them into one single sentence or several separate statements. For example, instead of quoting:
"War is the concentration of all human crimes. Under its standard gather violence, malignity, rage, fraud, perfidy, rapacity, and lust. If it only slew men it would do little. It turns man into a beast of prey."
as one attitude statement, it would be better to rewrite this into three separate statements, thus:
a. War is the concentration of all human crimes.
b. War is degenerating.
c. War makes man a beast of prey.
9. An attitude statement should be clear-cut and direct. Avoid statements which are not directly an attitude but from which an attitude is to be inferred, unless the inference is clear and unquestionable. To illustrate, as a statement of attitude on patriotism, the following is ambiguous as the sorting data demonstrate:
Statement: The makers of American policy are too idealistic and should not get mixed up in European affairs.
The wide scatter indicates that the subjects tried to guess at the attitude of the statement. Illustrating further, the following statements, as attitudes toward war, are likewise too indirect to be satisfactory:
"Military instruction should be separated from colleges and universities."
"Patriotism is the imperative end of education."
"Loyalty to our country comes before world-brotherhood."
On the other hand, some of the best attitude statements are those which infer unmistakably an attitude but do not explicitly assert it. Examples of this type are "Might is right" as an attitude favorable to militarism,. and "We do not need more babies but better ones" as an attitude favorable to birth control.
10. Use with care and moderation such words as "only," "mere," "just" (in the sense of only), "merely," etc. Many statements containing one or another of these words have been, found to cause ambiguity or bimodal distribution, even though on deliberation the affect may be clear. Examples:
Statement: Only by taking the money out of football can it be made really amateur.
Statement; In my thinking God merely means an ideal.
Statement: I respect only those laws which represent the wishes of the majority.
These distributions show that by qualifying a statement with such words as "only," "mere," etc., it becomes difficult to interpret the attitude.
11. Avoid colorless expressions or statements lacking affect. While it is not necessary that every attitude statement must be emotionally toned, it should always represent some clearly defined conviction. Thus, do not say:
"The unions (or anything else) are all right."
"Churches Are beautiful buildings," . Etc.
To illustrate further:
Statement: Intercollegiate athletics are a necessary evil. Sorting data:
Since this type of statement expresses no conviction in one way or another, it can be endorsed by a person who may belong to any part of the scale.
12. Whenever possible, write an attitude statement in the form of a simple rather than a complex or compound sentence. The simple kind of statement reduces the chance for a wrong interpretation. Thus:
Bad: Women have always had enough to do to look after their men, and they should not need more.
Better: Women work enough without outside employment,
13. When a statement cannot be made in the form of a simple sentence, write it as a complex rather than a compound one. For example:
Awkward: Some code of ethics is necessary for the guidance of our conduct and the Bible may well serve that purpose.
Better: Since we need an ethical code for guiding conduct, the Bible is indispensable.
Best: The Bible is necessary for guiding conduct.
14. It is usually better to use the active rather than the passive voice. Thus,
"Punishment does not deter crime"
is preferred to
"Crime cannot be deterred by punishment."
An exception to this rule, however, will be discussed in the next paragraph.
15. In general, use the term of the issue as the subject of a statement. This is desirable in order to secure proper emphasis and attention. Hence it is permitted even in violation of Rule 14. For example, if the issue is on attitudes toward public Office, it is better to say, "Public officials are con-trolled by crooks,'," than to say, "The crooks control public officials." On the other hand, if the issue is on attitudes toward the social influence of crime, it would be better to use the second statement in preference to the first.
16. Avoid high-sounding words, uncommon words or expressions, technical terms not ordinarily understood, etc. When a scale is being prepared for use in a specific age, school, or sociological group, the vocabulary of
( 373) that group should be borne in mind. In any case, it is better to write statements in the simplest and most precise language possible.
In addition to the foregoing criteria, there may be mentioned several general rules, based largely upon good usage in English. These rules improve sentence structure although they are not necessarily concerned with the scale values or the Q-values of the statements.
1. Avoid a negative expression whenever a positive one can be substituted. Thus, use "disagree" instead of "not agree" "difficult" instead of "not easy," etc. Exceptions, of course, are permitted when the negative effect is desired.
2. Avoid double infinitives, especially in a short statement. For ex-ample, instead of saying, "To work on Sunday is to be immoral,"say, "Working on Sunday is immoral." Usually, in a case of double infinitives, at least one of them can be changed into a present participle.
3. Do not use redundant phrases. To illustrate:
Bad: We should not knock but boost our public officials.
Better: We should boost our public officials.
Bad: Communism should be absolutely banished at all costs.
Better: Communism should be banished absolutely.
By eliminating the redundancy, these statements are improved by their shorter length, yet lose none of their effectiveness as attitudes.
4. Avoid excessive use of such phrases as "I think that ... ; "I believe that ... "I feel .... etc., to precede a statement. Simply make the direct statement. Such prefices are excess baggage.
5. Avoid double negatives. Statements such as the following have some-times been found to result in high ambiguity:
"I don't believe in disobeying the law."
"I do not dislike the negroes."
This double negative ,type of statement lacks the force of directness with which every attitude should be expressed.
In conclusion, the distinguishing feature of an attitude statement lies mainly in that it expresses an attitude. To be sure, the technical requirement of the statement is that it belongs to the attitude continuum being measured, but that is adequately provided for by objective criteria. Other-wise, an attitude statement differs little from other statements, at least so far as language structure is concerned. It should therefore follow all the rules of good English (except occasionally for special sociological groups), with the added feature of being simple but precise, short but complete. The criteria suggested in this paper are discussed in detail only because it is hoped that, in doing so, they would help in obtaining initial statements that are more likely to produce satisfactory attitude scales.
1. THURSTONE, L. L., & CHAVE, E. J. The measurement of attitude. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1929. Pp. 96.
The University of Chicago
Thanks are due the authors of several attitude scales for the use of certain illustrative statements. I am especially indebted to Prof. L. L. Thurstone through whom I obtained the original sorting data on these statements.
The “you-attitude,” a writing style and a philosophy, places the reader’s interests foremost in your writing.It is based on the principle that the readers are more concerned about their own needs than they are about yours.Rely on the following you-attitude principles:
· Look at situations from the reader’s perspective
· Emphasize what the reader wants to know
· Respect the reader’s intelligence
· Protect the reader’s ego
Example:We must receive your receipt with the merchandise before we can process your refund.
Please enclose the sales receipt with the merchandise, so that we can process your refund promptly.
So you can receive your refund promptly, please enclose the receipt with the merchandise.
You attitude principles involve more than using you and your; it means seeing from the reader’s viewpoint and seeing reader benefits, and writing accordingly.
To apply the you-attitude, use the following techniques:
1. Write with a specific purpose in mind, but focus not on what you will gain but on what the reader receives, wants, or can do.Not "We are shipping your order . . . " but "The pair of shoes you ordered . . ."
2. Refer to the reader’s request or order specifically.Not "your order" but the "desk chair you ordered."
3. Anticipate, but don’t presume to know how a reader will react or feel.Not "You'll be happy to know . . . " but just make the direct statement.
4. When writing to a person, highlight them (“you”) rather than the “I” or “we.”In other words, choose the second-person point of view over first or third.
5. Conversely, in negative situations, avoid the word “you.”Protect the reader’s ego by using more impersonal expressions and passive verbs to avoid assigning blame. You made no allowance for inflation in your estimate. No estimate for inflation has been made in this estimate (passive). This estimate makes no allowance for inflation (impersonal).
6. Emphasize the positive by replacing words that contain negative connotations or denotations."Not we have failed to take inventory" but "We haven't yet finished taking inventory."
7. Make information accessible: organize and format more, according to established conventions; include clear topic sentences in all paragraphs; and for long documents, use headings to separate sections.
8. Write clearly and briefly: avoid jargon, inflated vocabulary, wordiness, and unnecessary information.
9. Don’t hope your reader infers correctly.Explain explicitly the significance and/or relevance or your information.
*from Business and Administrative Communication, Kitty O. Locker.
To answer the question, different types of attitudes are * Optimism * Pessimism * C What are the different types of attitude in writing?.
The "you attitude" is more than a matter of playing with pronouns or even of playing nice. It's good business.
In professional writing, the "you attitude" means looking at a topic from the reader's point of view ("you") instead of our own ("me"):
In emails, letters, and reports, emphasizing what our readers want or need to know is likely to generate goodwill and lead to positive results.
Put yourself in the reader's place and think about the kinds of emails and letters that you like to receive. Messages that are stuffy, pushy, and vague? Unlikely.
Messages that elicit a positive response are generally positive themselves: courteous and considerate, with just enough information to anticipate the most common questions and concerns.
In any case, don't make your message all about "me" or "us." If you're trying to persuade your readers to buy a product, accept an offer, pay a bill, or perform a service for you, emphasize what's in it for them.
Here's an excerpt from a letter (addressed to "Insured" followed by a ten-digit number) that shows a marked insensitivity to the "you attitude":
As a participating company of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), policies written through Allstate Flood are subject to periodic reviews by the Risk Mitigation Unit of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). This review process serves to ensure that policies have been properly rated based on the supporting documentation provided and according to the rules and regulations set forth by the NFIP...
The above referenced policy was reviewed by the Flood Service Center and it has been determined that this policy has been rated incorrectly, or that additional information or clarification of submitted documentation is required to ensure that the policy has been properly rated.
The following items are needed to complete the underwriting file and establish the proper rate for this account ...
Clearly, it's going to take more than a "you" to fix this letter. For one thing, there's not even a "we" here. The persistent use of the passive voice obscures any sense of a human subject -- a problem also demonstrated by the signature line, which reads ("sincerely" and monolithically), "Allstate Flood Underwriting."
One presumption of the "you attitude" is that both writer and reader are real people. But like the wrapper on a loaf of Wonder Bread, the Allstate letter might just as well say, "Never touched by human hands."
The multiple-choice format of the second paragraph only deepens the mystery. Just who "reviewed," "determined," and "rated"? That's not for us to know. Has the policy been "rated incorrectly" for the past eight years, and if so, when and how did this blunder come to light? Has information been misplaced -- dropped behind a filing cabinet, say, or deleted by a clumsy intern?
All things are possible in the stilted language of this form letter, and nothing is certain. Except for one thing, of course: it looks like our rates are going up again.
Tone is defined as the general character or attitude of a place, piece of Have students identify the tone and give supporting examples of.